National Flood Insurance Program Overview

Acronyms – Link to our list KAMM Mitigation Acronyms

Answers to Questions about the National Flood Insurance Program

An in-depth guide addressing frequently asked questions about the NFIP. This resource includes valuable information about flood insurance policies, what to do before and after a flood, flood maps, flood mitigation actions and more.

Click NFIP Question & Answer to download the publication.

National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) Overview

In 1968, Congress created the NFIP to provide a means for property owners to protect themselves financially from flood events.  The NFIP offers flood insurance to homeowners, renters and business owners if their community participates in the NFIP.  Participating communities agree to adopt and enforce floodplain management ordinances that meet or exceed FEMA requirements.

The Stafford Act constitutes the statutory authority for most Federal disaster response activities especially as they pertain to FEMA and FEMA programs.

Download the Stafford Act, Stafford Act (as amended August 2016).

What is the National Flood Insurance Program?

The National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) is a voluntary program based on a mutual agreement between the federal government and the local community.  In exchange for adopting and enforcing a local floodplain management ordinance, federally backed flood insurance is made available to all property owners throughout the community.

State Role in the NFIP

The Division of Water (DOW) is the state’s coordinating agency for the NFIP.  In this role, the DOW establishes development and building standards, provides technical assistance to communities & agencies, and evaluates & documents community floodplain management activities.


Floodplain Management Links

Link to FEMA’s website Floodplain Management |

Link to | The National Flood Insurance Program | FloodSmart


The National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) Terminology Index is a collection of floodplain management regulations, policies, technical bulletins, and guidance you can navigate by keyword.


FEMA Releases NFIP Technical Bulletin 10 

FEMA is pleased to announce the release of the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) Technical Bulletin 10, Reasonably Safe from Flooding Requirement for Building on Filled Land Removed From the Special Flood Hazard Area in Accordance with the National Flood Insurance Program (TB 10). This publication is the latest update to the NFIP Technical Bulletin series.

TB 10 provides guidance on the NFIP requirements related to determining that buildings constructed on filled land will be reasonably safe from flooding. Guidance is provided for the placement of fill and the parameters for the design and construction of buildings on filled land that has been removed from the Special Flood Hazard Area through the flood map revision process managed by FEMA.

The major updates in TB 10 include:

  • The title has been updated. It was previously Ensuring That Structures Built on Fill In or Near Special Flood Hazard Areas Are Reasonably Safe From Flooding in Accordance with the National Flood Insurance Program.
  • The intent of TB 10, and when it is appropriate to use TB 10, has been clarified.
  • Increased emphasis on documentation needed for a local official to make the “reasonably safe from flooding” determination.
  • Additional best practices are provided.
  • Grouped and reorganization of the content discussing the Technical Approaches to Seepage Analysis in Section 9.

To learn more about the eleven NFIP Technical Bulletins, visit the FEMA National Flood Insurance Technical Bulletins.

NFIP Requirements

Responsibility for flood loss reduction is shared by all units of government— local, state and federal—and the private sector.  Fulfilling this responsibility depends on having the knowledge and skills to plan and implement needed floodplain management measures.  The fundamental floodplain management program that most others are built on is the NFIP.

Certain activities (e.g., floodproofing design,  survey of building elevations, hydrologic and hydraulic analyses, survey and topographic data) require certification by a licensed professional architect, engineer, surveyor, or the community floodplain administrator.


Answers to Questions about the National Flood Insurance Program

March 2022

An in-depth guide addressing frequently asked questions about the NFIP. This resource includes valuable information about flood insurance policies, what to do before and after a flood, flood maps, flood mitigation actions and more.

Click NFIP Question & Answer to download the publication.





NFIP Desk Reference Guide

October 2017

FEMA updated its “NFIP Desk Reference Guide for State Insurance Commissioners and Others.” The guide is in three distinct parts: Before the Flood, During the Flood and After the Flood. Each provides valuable resources on what you need to know, what you need to share with policyholders and property owners, and who to contact. It’s organized to provide you the information you need to know when you need to know it most. FEMA published it electronically to ensure easy updates as the program evolves, and also included an interactive version.


FloodSmart Websites Offer Resources for FloodSmart Partners and Agents

Have you visited FloodSmart’s consumer or agent websites lately? Both sites have been expanding over the last few years, offering new and improved resources for groups who often play a critical role in helping homeowners understand, and address, their flood risk with insurance protection. From an entirely new section of housing outreach tools for stakeholders to a helpful new guide that agents can take into the field after an event, both sites are evolving to provide more tools and resources to support NFIP partners who connect consumers to flood insurance.

FloodSmart has resources for stakeholders and communities that want to go the extra mile to help property owners better understand their flood risk and the financial impact of flooding. provides sharable tools for communicating the risks, causes, and costs of flooding and a wealth of information about how to empower local residents to obtain flood insurance policies.

Resources on the page include interactive tools showing flood risks and the cost of flooding; toolkits with materials to support your work around flood outreach, flood map changes, and levees; videos showing the devastation caused by flooding; and embeddable widgets highlighting specific flood risks.


FEMA Releases October 2022 Edition of the NFIP Manual

October 1, 2022

FEMA announced the updated edition of the National Flood Insurance Program’s (NFIP) Risk Rating 2.0 Flood Insurance Manual effective Oct. 1.  The Flood Insurance Manual is available on

The agency’s regular updates to the Flood Insurance Manual reflect an ongoing effort to deliver clear guidance in an easy-to-understand format.  The updated edition of the Flood Insurance Manual does not change flood insurance coverage or supersede the terms and conditions of the Standard Flood Insurance Policy.  The guidance in this edition reflects the NFIP’s existing underwriting requirements and its current rating methodology, Risk Rating 2.0.

The October 2022 edition of the Flood Insurance Manual clarifies and enhances guidance provided in the October 2021 Risk Rating 2.0 edition of the Flood Insurance Manual.


Flood Insurance Rates Increase Take Effect April 1, 2020

April 1, 2020, and January 1, 2021, Program Changes

On Oct. 1, FEMA announced key changes for the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP), to begin on April 1, 2020.  Changes include updated increases to conform to the premium rate caps established by the Biggert-Waters Flood Insurance Reform Act of 2012 (BW-12) and the Homeowner Flood Insurance Affordability Act of 2014 (HFIAA).

Link to the April 1, 2020, and January 1, 2021, Program Changes Announcement.

Beginning on April 1, 2020, renewal premiums will increase an average of 11.3 percent.  These amounts do not include the HFIAA Surcharge, or the Federal Policy Fee (FPF).  Nearly 80 percent of policyholders already pay a full-risk rate and will therefore not experience this rate increase.  The Severe Repetitive Loss Premium is increasing to 10 percent for all policies covering properties with that designation.

In addition, it was also announced that annual premium increases of 14.9 percent for preferred risk policies and 14.8 percent for newly mapped procedure policies will be effective on Jan. 1, 2021.


NFIP: Questions & Answers About Flood Insurance for Real Estate

Designed for real estate professionals, this brochure provides answers to the following questions: Why should I alert my clients about the importance of purchasing flood insurance?  Who can purchase flood insurance?  How do clients obtain a flood insurance policy?  How much will it cost?  When is the best time to buy?  SFHA is a special flood hazard area?

Download the brochure here.


CRS Program

NFIP Community Rating System – Access a full description of the NFIP Community Rating System with information about the benefits of the CRS and how to join.  Also link to CRS Updates & Newsletters.


WYO Program Bulletins

FEMA periodically issues WYO Program Bulletins related to recent legislative changes and clarifications to the NFIP Flood Insurance Manual.

The bulletins are posted at




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